“Many savings and investment accounts come with rules around when you can pull out your money. However, there are exceptions in which the penalty is worth the reward. There are times when you might be able to lessen the consequences.”
You hear it all the time: “early withdrawal penalties apply.” When you have retirement accounts and CDs, it’s usually not advised. However, there are some instances when it makes sense.
CNBC’s recent article, “Sometimes, early withdrawal penalties don't apply”, explains that we dutifully follow these rules to avoid the much dreaded early withdrawal penalty. However, there are cases when the penalty might not apply to you, or times when the benefits outweigh the financial hit. You should remember that these moves should often only be made if necessary, because they place your savings in jeopardy.
Certificates of Deposit. If your CDs are growing at less than 1% a year at a bank, but the bank across the street is offering annual returns of 1.72% on their certificates of deposit, you might consider an early withdrawal, despite a penalty of three months interest. Do the math: you might be ahead financially after three months, at the other bank's higher interest rate.
529 Plans. There's no early withdrawal from a 529 plan—the tax-advantaged account that can be used for education-related expenses. That’s because there are no rules as to when you can use the money. The rules stipulate only what you can use it for, which is just education-related expenses. There’s a penalty, if you use it for other reasons. It’s a 10% tax penalty, as well as income taxes on the account's earnings. In many cases, the family’s no worse off than they'd be in a taxable account. However, you may have to repay the state income tax benefits you received for using the account. If your child does plan on going to college, the withdrawals will leave your savings with less time to compound.
Retirement savings. An early withdrawal from your retirement account is a huge black eye in personal finance. Using an individual retirement account (IRA) or 401(k) plan before the age of 59½ can mean a 10% penalty, income taxes and a depleted fund for your retirement. There are several exceptions to the 10% penalty, eliminating that expense when you withdraw early from your retirement account. However, there's confusion about when the penalty does and does not apply. For example, if you decide to retire at 56, you can withdraw from your 401(k) without any penalty. However, if you roll it into an IRA, you'd have to wait until 59½ to have your money without consequences.
Both 401(k) plans and individual requirements waive the penalty if you're using the money for serious medical expenses, or if there's a disability or death. You can use your IRA to fund health insurance, if you're unemployed, without penalty. If you're divorcing, you may be able to use 401(k) assets without a penalty.
Reference: CNBC (August 21, 2018) “Sometimes, early withdrawal penalties don't apply”